Alder cones gently acidify the water and provide humic substances to replicate freshwater systems
with plant litter inputs. Shrimp and other aquarium fauna greatly benefit from humic substances and
will also feed on the biofilm that grows on the alder cones. Humic substances can also act as mild
anti-microbials that can keep pathogenic micro-organisms under control. Optimal results can be
obtained by gently roasting the cones in an oven at 120̊C for 15min which acts to sterilise the cones
and treat any remaining sap contained within the cones. Dosage depends on the desired level of pH
regulation or 'staining' of aquarium water. A good starting point is 2-3 cones per 50L which will
barely noticeably stain the water.